A

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antartica
Antigua & Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore & Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan

B

Bahamas
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia & Herzegovina
Botswanna
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burma
Burundi

C

Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo (DRC)
Congo
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cota D'Ivory
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republich

D

Denmark
Dijouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic

E

East Timor
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Islands

F

Falkland Islands
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern Antarctic Lands

G

Gabon
Gambia
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea Bissau
Guinea Bissau
Guyana

H

Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary

I

Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Isle of Man
Isreal
Italy

J

Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan
Juan de Nova

  Liechtenstein  
Flag of Liechtenstein
Click to enlarge
Categories Banner
 Introduction
 Geography
 People
 Government
 Economy
 Communications
 Transportation
 Military
 Transnational Issues
     

This page was last updated on 15 November, 2007


Map of Liechtenstein



Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Liechtenstein Top of Page
Background:

The Principality of Liechtenstein was established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1719; it became a sovereign state in 1806. Until the end of World War I, it was closely tied to Austria, but the economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to enter into a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral), the country's low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth. Shortcomings in banking regulatory oversight resulted in concerns about the use of financial institutions for money laundering. However, Liechtenstein implemented anti-money-laundering legislation over the past several years and a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty with the US went into effect in 2003.

 

  
   Geography    Liechtenstein Top of Page
Location:

Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland
Geographic coordinates:

47 16 N, 9 32 E
Map references:

Europe
Area:

total: 160 sq km
land: 160 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:

about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:

total: 76 km
border countries: Austria 34.9 km, Switzerland 41.1 km
Coastline:

0 km (doubly landlocked)
Maritime claims:

none (landlocked)
Climate:

continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers
Terrain:

mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third
Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Ruggeller Riet 430 m
highest point: Vorder-Grauspitz 2,599 m
Natural resources:

hydroelectric potential, arable land
Land use:

arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 75% (2005)
Irrigated land:

NA
Natural hazards:

NA
Environment - current issues:

NA
Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:

along with Uzbekistan, one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation
   People    Liechtenstein Top of Page
Population:

34,247 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:

0-14 years: 17.1% (male 2,902/female 2,963)
15-64 years: 70% (male 11,887/female 12,101)
65 years and over: 12.8% (male 1,862/female 2,532) (2007 est.)
Median age:

total: 40.1 years
male: 39.5 years
female: 40.5 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:

0.745% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:

10.02 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:

7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:

4.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.979 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.982 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.735 male(s)/female
total population: 0.946 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:

total: 4.58 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.13 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 79.81 years
male: 76.24 years
female: 83.4 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:

1.51 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:

NA
Nationality:

noun: Liechtensteiner(s)
adjective: Liechtenstein
Ethnic groups:

Alemannic 86%, Italian, Turkish, and other 14%
Religions:

Roman Catholic 76.2%, Protestant 7%, unknown 10.6%, other 6.2% (June 2002)
Languages:

German (official), Alemannic dialect
Literacy:

definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%
   Government    Liechtenstein Top of Page
Country name:

conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein
conventional short form: Liechtenstein
local long form: Fuerstentum Liechtenstein
local short form: Liechtenstein
Government type:

constitutional monarchy
Capital:

name: Vaduz
geographic coordinates: 47 08 N, 9 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:

11 communes (Gemeinden, singular - Gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz
Independence:

23 January 1719 (Principality of Liechtenstein established); 12 July 1806 (independence from the Holy Roman Empire)
National holiday:

Assumption Day, 15 August
Constitution:

5 October 1921
Legal system:

local civil and penal codes based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:

chief of state: Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS, son of the monarch (born 11 June 1968); note - on 15 August 2004, HANS ADAM transferred the official duties of the ruling prince to ALOIS, but HANS ADAM retains status of chief of state
head of government: Head of Government Otmar HASLER (since 5 April 2001); Deputy Head of Government Klaus TSCHUETSCHER (since 21 April 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Parliament, confirmed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Landtag is usually appointed the head of government by the monarch and the leader of the largest minority party in the Landtag is usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch if there is a coalition government
Legislative branch:

unicameral Parliament or Landtag (25 seats; members are elected by popular vote under proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 11 and 13 March 2005 (next to be held by 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - FBP 48.7%, VU 38.2%, FL 13%; seats by party - FBP 12, VU 10, FL 3
Judicial branch:

Supreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Court of Appeal or Obergericht
Political parties and leaders:

Patriotic Union or VU [Adolf HEEB] (was Fatherland Union); Progressive Citizens' Party or FBP [Otmar HASLER]; The Free List or FL [Claudia HEEB-FLECK and Egon MATT]
Political pressure groups and leaders:

NA
International organization participation:

CE, EBRD, EFTA, IAEA, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCL, WIPO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Claudia FRITSCHE
chancery: 888 17th Street NW, Suite 1250, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 331-0590
FAX: [1] (202) 331-3221
Diplomatic representation from the US:

the US does not have an embassy in Liechtenstein; the US Ambassador to Switzerland is accredited to Liechtenstein
Flag description:

two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band
   Economy    Liechtenstein Top of Page
Economy - overview:

Despite its small size and limited natural resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital financial service sector and living standards on a par with its large European neighbors. The Liechtenstein economy is widely diversified with a large number of small businesses. Low business taxes - the maximum tax rate is 20% - and easy incorporation rules have induced many holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues. The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. It imports more than 90% of its energy requirements. Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the EU) since May 1995. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated Europe.
GDP (purchasing power parity):

$1.786 billion (2001 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):

$2.487 billion (2001)
GDP - real growth rate:

11% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):

$25,000 (1999 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 6%
industry: 39%
services: 55% (2001)
Labor force:

29,500 of whom 13,900 commute from Austria, Switzerland, and Germany to work each day (31 December 2001)
Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 2%
industry: 47%
services: 51% (31 December 2001)
Unemployment rate:

1.3% (September 2002)
Population below poverty line:

NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):

1% (2001)
Budget:

revenues: $424.2 million
expenditures: $414.1 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
Agriculture - products:

wheat, barley, corn, potatoes; livestock, dairy products
Industries:

electronics, metal manufacturing, dental products, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism, optical instruments
Industrial production growth rate:

NA%
Exports:

$2.47 billion (1996)
Exports - commodities:

small specialty machinery, connectors for audio and video, parts for motor vehicles, dental products, hardware, prepared foodstuffs, electronic equipment, optical products
Exports - partners:

EU 62.6% (Germany 24.3%, Austria 9.5%, France 8.9%, Italy 6.6%, UK 4.6%), US 18.9%, Switzerland 15.7% (2006)
Imports:

$917.3 million (1996)
Imports - commodities:

agricultural products, raw materials, energy products, machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles
Imports - partners:

EU, Switzerland (2006)
Debt - external:

$0 (2001)
Market value of publicly traded shares:

$NA
Currency (code):

Swiss franc (CHF)
Exchange rates:

Swiss francs per US dollar - 1.2539 (2006), 1.2452 (2005), 1.2435 (2004), 1.3467 (2003), 1.5586 (2002)
Fiscal year:

calendar year
   Communications    Liechtenstein Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:

20,000 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:

27,500 (2005)
Telephone system:

general assessment: automatic telephone system
domestic: NA
international: country code - 423; linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay
Radio broadcast stations:

AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:

NA (linked to Swiss networks) (1997)
Internet country code:

.li
Internet hosts:

4,753 (2007)
Internet users:

22,000 (2006)
   Transportation    Liechtenstein Top of Page
Pipelines:

gas 20 km (2006)
Railways:

9 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified)
note: belongs to the Austrian Railway System connecting Austria and Switzerland (2006)
Roadways:

total: 380 km
paved: 380 km (2006)
Waterways:

28 km (2006)
Ports and terminals:

none
   Military    Liechtenstein Top of Page
Manpower available for military service:

males age 18-49: 7,736 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:

males age 18-49: 6,250 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:

males age 18-49: 208 (2005 est.)
Military - note:

defense is the responsibility of Switzerland
   Transnational Issues    Liechtenstein Top of Page
Disputes - international:

none
Illicit drugs:

has strengthened money laundering controls, but money laundering remains a concern due to Liechtenstein's sophisticated offshore financial services sector

This page was last updated on 15 November, 2007


Bottom Banner

K

Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Kuwait
Kyrgystan

L

Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg

M

Macau
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia
Midway Island
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique

N

Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands Antilles
Netherlands
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
North Korea
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway

O

Oman

P

Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palau
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

Q

Qatar

R

Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda

S

St. Helena
St Kitts & Nevis
St Lucia
St Pierra & Miquelon
St Vincent & Grenadines
Samoa
San Marina
Sao Tome & Principle
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia & Montenegro
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia & Sandwich Islands
South Korea
Southern Islands
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria

T

Taiwan
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks & Caicos Islands
Tuvalu

U

Uganda
UK
Ukraine
UAE
Uruguay
USA
Uzbekistan

V

Vanuatu
Vatican
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands

W

Wake Island
Wallis & Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
The World

Y

Yemen

Z

Zimbabwe
Zambia