Serbia and Montenegro

Flag of Serbia and Montenegro
Map of Serbia and Montenegro
Introduction Serbia and Montenegro
Background:
The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Occupation by Nazi Germany in 1941 was resisted by various paramilitary bands that fought each other as well as the invaders. The group headed by Marshal TITO took full control upon German expulsion in 1945. Although Communist, his new government and its successors (he died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In the early 1990s, post-TITO Yugoslavia began to unravel along ethnic lines: Slovenia, Croatia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina were recognized as independent states in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (FRY) in April 1992 and, under President Slobodan MILOSEVIC, Serbia led various military intervention efforts to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." All of these efforts were ultimately unsuccessful. In 1999, massive expulsions by FRY forces and Serb paramilitaries of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo provoked an international response, including the NATO bombing of Serbia and the stationing of NATO, Russian, and other peacekeepers in Kosovo. Federal elections in the fall of 2000, brought about the ouster of MILOSEVIC and installed Vojislav KOSTUNICA as president. The arrest of MILOSEVIC in 2001 allowed for his subsequent transfer to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague to be tried for crimes against humanity. In 2001, the country's suspension was lifted, and it was once more accepted into UN organizations under the name of Yugoslavia. Kosovo has been governed by the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) since June 1999, under the authority of UN Security Council Resolution 1244. In 2002, the Serbian and Montenegrin components of Yugoslavia began negotiations to forge a looser relationship. These talks became a reality in February 2003 when lawmakers restructured the country into a loose federation of two republics called Serbia and Montenegro. An agreement was also reached to permit a referendum in each republic in three years on full independence.
Geography Serbia and Montenegro
Location:
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Geographic coordinates:
44 00 N, 21 00 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 102,350 sq km
water: 214 sq km
land: 102,136 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Kentucky
Land boundaries:
total: 2,246 km
border countries: Albania 287 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 241 km, Croatia (south) 25 km, Hungary 151 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km
Coastline:
199 km
Maritime claims - as described in UNCLOS 1982 (see Notes and Definitions):
NA
Climate:
in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland
Terrain:
extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Daravica 2,656 m
Natural resources:
oil, gas, coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, hydropower, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 36.34%
permanent crops: 3.44%
other: 60.22% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
570 sq km
Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast
People Serbia and Montenegro
Population:
10,825,900 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 18.3% (male 1,027,479; female 956,681)
15-64 years: 66.8% (male 3,602,959; female 3,627,616)
65 years and over: 14.9% (male 693,929; female 917,236) (2004 est.)
Median age:
total: 36.6 years
male: 35.1 years
female: 38.1 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.03% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
12.13 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
10.53 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 13.43 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 15.04 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.4 years
male: 71.9 years
female: 77.12 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.67 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
10,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Serb(s); Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Serbian; Montenegrin
Ethnic groups:
Serb 62.6%, Albanian 16.5%, Montenegrin 5%, Hungarian 3.3%, other 12.6% (1991)
Religions:
Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%
Languages:
Serbian 95%, Albanian 5%
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93%
male: 97.2%
female: 88.9% (1991)
Government Serbia and Montenegro
Country name:
conventional long form: Serbia and Montenegro
conventional short form: none
local short form: none
abbreviation: SCG
local long form: Srbija i Crna Gora
Government type:
republic
Capital:
Belgrade
Administrative divisions:
2 republics (republike, singular - republika); and 2 nominally autonomous provinces* (autonomn pokrajine, singular - autonomna pokrajina); Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*
Independence:
27 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or FRY - now Serbia and Montenegro - formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or SFRY)
National holiday:
National Day, 27 April
Constitution:
4 February 2003
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Svetozar MAROVIC (since 7 March 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
elections: president elected by the Parliament for a four-year term; election last held 7 March 2003 (next to be held NA 2007); prime minister appointed by the president
head of government: President Svetozar MAROVIC (since 7 March 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Federal Ministries act as Cabinet
election results: Svetozar MAROVIC elected president by the Parliament; vote was Svetozar MAROVIC 65, other 47
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (126 seats - 91 Serbian, 35 Montenegrin - filled by nominees of the two state parliaments for the first two years, after which the president will call for public elections
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - DOS 37, DLECG 19, DSS 17, ZP 14, SPS 12, SRS 8, SDP 5, SSJ 5, other 9
elections: last held 25 February 2003 (next to be held NA 2005)
Judicial branch:
Federal Court or Savezni Sud; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts are elected by the Federal Assembly for nine-year terms
note: since the promulgation of the 2003 Constitution, the Federal Court has constitutional and administrative functions; it has an equal number of judges from each republic
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Opposition of Serbia or DOS (a coalition of many small parties including DSS; it disbanded in November 2003) [leader NA]; Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Jozsef KASZA]; Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA, president]; Democratic List for European Montenegro or DLECG [Milo DJUKANOVIC, Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]; Democratic Party or DS [collective interim leadership led by Cedomir JOVANOVIC]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]; G17+ [Miroljub LABUS]; Party of Serb Unity or SSJ [Borislav PELEVIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Tomislav NIKOLIC]; Serbian Socialist Party or SPS (former Communist Party and party of Slobodan MILOSEVIC) [Zoran ANDJELKOVIC, general secretary]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Rasim LJAJIC]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Otpor Student Resistance Movement [leader NA]; Political Council for Presevo, Meveda and Bujanovac or PCPMB [leader NA]
International organization participation:
CE, CEI, EBRD, FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISET, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ivan VUJACIC
chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933
consulate(s) general: Chicago
telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Roderick W. MOORE; note - Michael C. POLT to become ambassador
embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade
mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
telephone: [381] (11) 361-9344
FAX: [381] (11) 361-8230
consulate(s): Podgornica
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red
Economy Serbia and Montenegro
Economy - overview:
MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 have left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. After the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in October 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on an aggressive market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000, Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). A World Bank-European Commission sponsored Donors' Conference held in June 2001 raised $1.3 billion for economic restructuring. An agreement rescheduling the country's $4.5 billion Paris Club government debts was concluded in November 2001; it wrote off 66% of the debt. The smaller republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and continues to maintain its own central bank, uses the euro instead of the Yugoslav dinar as official currency, collects customs tariffs, and manages its own budget. Kosovo, while technically still part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (now Serbia and Montenegro) according to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, is largely autonomous under United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and is greatly dependent on the international community and the diaspora for financial and technical assistance. The euro and the Yugoslav dinar are official currencies, and UNMIK collects taxes and manages the budget. The complexity of Serbia and Montenegro political relationships, slow progress in privatization, legal uncertainty over property rights, and scarcity of foreign-investment are holding back Serbia and Montenegro's economy. Arrangements with the IMF, especially requirements for fiscal discipline, are an important element in policy formation. Severe unemployment remains a key political economic problem.
GDP:
purchasing power parity - $24.01 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
2% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $2,300 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 26%
industry: 36%
services: 38% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
30% (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11.6% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
3 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Unemployment rate:
34.5% (2003 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $3.9 billion
expenditures: $4.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Industries:
machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone); consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances); electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate:
1.7% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
31.71 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 62.9%
hydro: 37.1%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
32.37 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
446 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
3.33 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
15,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
64,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA
Oil - imports:
NA
Oil - proved reserves:
38.75 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
602 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
602 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
24.07 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Agriculture - products:
cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep, goats
Exports:
$2.667 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials
Exports - partners:
Italy 31.3%, Germany 19.7%, Greece 6.9%, Austria 5.9%, France 4.5%, Hungary 4.3% (2002)
Imports:
$7.144 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
Imports - partners:
Germany 18.9%, Italy 17.1%, Austria 8%, Slovenia 7.6%, Hungary 5.2%, Greece 4.1%, France 4.1%, Bulgaria 4% (2002)
Debt - external:
$12.8 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$2 billion pledged in 2001 (disbursements to follow for several years)
Currency:
new Yugoslav dinar (YUM); note - in Montenegro the euro is legal tender; in Kosovo both the euro and the Yugoslav dinar are legal (2002)
Currency code:
YUM
Exchange rates:
new Yugoslav dinars per US dollar - official rate: 65 (2002)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Serbia and Montenegro
Telephones - main lines in use:
2.493 million (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
2,750,400 (2002)
Telephone system:
general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: country code - 381; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 113, FM 194, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios:
3.15 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
more than 771 (including 86 strong stations and 685 low-power stations, plus 20 repeaters in the principal networks; also numerous local or private stations in Serbia and Vojvodina) (1997)
Televisions:
2.75 million (1997)
Internet country code:
.yu
Internet hosts:
16,972 (2002)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
9 (2000)
Internet users:
640,000 (2002)
Transportation Serbia and Montenegro
Railways:
total: 4,059 km
standard gauge: 4,059 km 1.435-m gauge (1,364 km electrified) (2002)
Highways:
total: 49,805 km
paved: 31,029 km (including 560 km of expressways)
unpaved: 18,776 km (2000)
Waterways:
587 km
note: the Danube River, central Europe's connection to the Black Sea, runs through Serbia; since early 2000, a pontoon bridge, replacing a destroyed conventional bridge, has obstructed river traffic at Novi Sad; the obstruction is bypassed by a canal system, but the inadequate lock size limits the size of vessels which may pass; the pontoon bridge can be opened for large ships but has slowed river traffic (2001)
Pipelines:
gas 3,177 km; oil 393 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Bar, Belgrade, Kotor, Novi Sad, Pancevo, Tivat, Zelenika
Airports:
45 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 19
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2003 est.)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 12 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
4 (2003 est.)
Military Serbia and Montenegro
Military branches:
Army (VJ) (including ground forces with border troops, naval forces, air and air defense forces)
Military manpower - military age:
19 years of age (nine months compulsory service) (2004)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,718,234 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,184,937 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 81,245 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$654 million (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
NA
Transnational Issues Serbia and Montenegro
Disputes - international:
the future status of Kosovo remains an unresolved issue in South Central Europe with Kosovo Albanians overwhelmingly supporting and Serbian officials opposing Kosovo independence; the international community has agreed to begin a process to determine final status only after significant progress has been made in solidifying multi-ethnic democracy in Kosovo as outlined in the policy of "standards before status"; the Contract group will review progress on the UNMIK standard around mid-2005; ethnic Albanians in Kosovo resist demarcation of the F.Y.R.O.M. boundary in accordance with the 2000 delimitation treaty, which transfers on net a small amount of land to F.Y.R.O.M.; Serbia and Montenegro have delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering

This page was last updated on 11 May, 2004


 

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