A

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antartica
Antigua & Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore & Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan

B

Bahamas
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia & Herzegovina
Botswanna
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burma
Burundi

C

Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo (DRC)
Congo
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cota D'Ivory
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republich

D

Denmark
Dijouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic

E

East Timor
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Islands

F

Falkland Islands
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern Antarctic Lands

G

Gabon
Gambia
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea Bissau
Guinea Bissau
Guyana

H

Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary

I

Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Isle of Man
Isreal
Italy

J

Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan
Juan de Nova

  Tunisia  
Flag of Tunisia
Click to enlarge
Categories Banner
 Introduction
 Geography
 People
 Government
 Economy
 Communications
 Transportation
 Military
 Transnational Issues
     

This page was last updated on 15 November, 2007


Map of Tunisia



Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Tunisia Top of Page
Background:

Rivalry between French and Italian interests in Tunisia culminated in a French invasion in 1881 and the creation of a protectorate. Agitation for independence in the decades following World War I was finally successful in getting the French to recognize Tunisia as an independent state in 1956. The country's first president, Habib BOURGUIBA, established a strict one-party state. He dominated the country for 31 years, repressing Islamic fundamentalism and establishing rights for women unmatched by any other Arab nation. Tunisia has long taken a moderate, non-aligned stance in its foreign relations. Domestically, it has sought to defuse rising pressure for a more open political society.

   Geography    Tunisia Top of Page
Location:

Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Libya
Geographic coordinates:

34 00 N, 9 00 E
Map references:

Africa
Area:

total: 163,610 sq km
land: 155,360 sq km
water: 8,250 sq km
Area - comparative:

slightly larger than Georgia
Land boundaries:

total: 1,424 km
border countries: Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km
Coastline:

1,148 km
Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
Climate:

temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south
Terrain:

mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara
Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Shatt al Gharsah -17 m
highest point: Jebel ech Chambi 1,544 m
Natural resources:

petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt
Land use:

arable land: 17.05%
permanent crops: 13.08%
other: 69.87% (2005)
Irrigated land:

3,940 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:

NA
Environment - current issues:

toxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and poses health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:

strategic location in central Mediterranean; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration
   People    Tunisia Top of Page
Population:

10,276,158 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:

0-14 years: 24% (male 1,270,208/female 1,191,619)
15-64 years: 69.2% (male 3,571,228/female 3,538,458)
65 years and over: 6.9% (male 333,801/female 370,844) (2007 est.)
Median age:

total: 28.3 years
male: 27.7 years
female: 28.8 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:

0.989% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:

15.54 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:

5.17 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:

-0.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.066 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.009 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.015 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:

total: 22.94 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 25.75 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 75.34 years
male: 73.6 years
female: 77.21 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:

1.73 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

less than 0.1% (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

1,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:

less than 200 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: may be a significant risk in some locations during the transmission season (typically April through November) (2007)
Nationality:

noun: Tunisian(s)
adjective: Tunisian
Ethnic groups:

Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%
Religions:

Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish and other 1%
Languages:

Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce)
Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 74.3%
male: 83.4%
female: 65.3% (2004 census)
   Government    Tunisia Top of Page
Country name:

conventional long form: Tunisian Republic
conventional short form: Tunisia
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah
local short form: Tunis
Government type:

republic
Capital:

name: Tunis
geographic coordinates: 36 48 N, 10 11 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:

24 governorates; Ariana (Aryanah), Beja (Bajah), Ben Arous (Bin 'Arus), Bizerte (Banzart), Gabes (Qabis), Gafsa (Qafsah), Jendouba (Jundubah), Kairouan (Al Qayrawan), Kasserine (Al Qasrayn), Kebili (Qibili), Kef (Al Kaf), Mahdia (Al Mahdiyah), Manouba (Manubah), Medenine (Madanin), Monastir (Al Munastir), Nabeul (Nabul), Sfax (Safaqis), Sidi Bou Zid (Sidi Bu Zayd), Siliana (Silyanah), Sousse (Susah), Tataouine (Tatawin), Tozeur (Tawzar), Tunis, Zaghouan (Zaghwan)
Independence:

20 March 1956 (from France)
National holiday:

Independence Day, 20 March (1956)
Constitution:

1 June 1959; amended 1988, 2002
Legal system:

based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:

20 years of age; universal except for active duty military
Executive branch:

chief of state: President Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November 1987)
head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed GHANNOUCHI (since 17 November 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 24 October 2004 (next to be held in October 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI reelected for a fourth term; percent of vote - Zine El Abidine BEN ALI 94.5%, Mohamed BOUCHIHA 3.8%, Mohamed Ali HALOUANI 1%
Legislative branch:

bicameral system consists of the Chamber of Deputies or Majlis al-Nuwaab (189 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Advisors (126 seats; 85 members elected by municipal counselors, deputies, mayors, and professional associations and trade unions; 41 members are presidential appointees; members serve six-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Deputies - last held on 24 October 2004 (next to be held in October 2009); Chamber of Advisors - last held on 3 July 2005 (next to be held in July 2011)
election results: Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RCD 152, MDS 14, PUP 11, UDU 7, Al-Tajdid 3, PSL 2; Chamber of Advisors - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RCD 71 (14 trade union seats vacant (boycotted))
Judicial branch:

Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation
Political parties and leaders:

Al-Tajdid Movement [Ali HALOUANI]; Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (Rassemblement Constitutionnel Democratique) or RCD (official ruling party) [President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI]; Green Party for Progress or PVP [Mongi KHAMASSI]; Liberal Social Party or PSL [Mounir BEJI]; Movement of Socialist Democrats or MDS [Ismail BOULAHYA]; Popular Unity Party or PUP [Mohamed BOUCHIHA]; Progressive Democratic Party [Nejib CHEBBI]; Unionist Democratic Union or UDU [Ahmed INOUBLI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:

18 October Group [collective leadership]; Democratic Forum for Labor and Liberties or FDTL [Mustapha Ben JAFAAR]; Tunisian League for Human Rights or LTDH [Mokhtar TRIFI]; note - the Islamic fundamentalist party, Al Nahda (Renaissance), is outlawed
International organization participation:

ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BSEC (observer), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAS, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC (suspended), OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, ONUB, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Nejib HACHANA
chancery: 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 862-1850
FAX: [1] (202) 862-1858
Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Robert F. GODEC
embassy: Zone Nord-Est des Berges du Lac Nord de Tunis 1053
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [216] 71 107-000
FAX: [216] 71 107-090
Flag description:

red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam
   Economy    Tunisia Top of Page
Economy - overview:

Tunisia has a diverse economy, with important agricultural, mining, energy, tourism, and manufacturing sectors. Governmental control of economic affairs while still heavy has gradually lessened over the past decade with increasing privatization, simplification of the tax structure, and a prudent approach to debt. Progressive social policies also have helped raise living conditions in Tunisia relative to the region. Real growth slowed to a 15-year low of 1.9% in 2002 because of agricultural drought and lackluster tourism. Increased rain helped to push GDP growth to an average rate of 5% in 2003-05. However, a recession in agriculture, weak expansion in the tourism and textile sectors, and increasing import costs due to rising world energy prices cut growth to 4% in 2006. Tunisia is gradually removing barriers to trade with the EU. Broader privatization, further liberalization of the investment code to increase foreign investment, improvements in government efficiency, and reduction of the trade deficit are among the challenges ahead.
GDP (purchasing power parity):

$91.04 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):

$33.33 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:

5.2% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):

$8,900 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 12.5%
industry: 33.1%
services: 54.4% (2006 est.)
Labor force:

3.503 million
note: shortage of skilled labor (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 55%
industry: 23%
services: 22% (1995 est.)
Unemployment rate:

13.9% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line:

7.4% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 31.5% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:

40 (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):

4.5% (2006 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):

22.7% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budget:

revenues: $7.228 billion
expenditures: $8.163 billion; including capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (2006 est.)
Public debt:

55.7% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:

olives, olive oil, grain, tomatoes, citrus fruit, sugar beets, dates, almonds; beef, dairy products
Industries:

petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore), tourism, textiles, footwear, agribusiness, beverages
Industrial production growth rate:

4.7% (2006 est.)
Electricity - production:

12.85 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption:

11.17 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2005)
Oil - production:

81,530 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:

89,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:

NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:

NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:

1.7 billion bbl (2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:

2.398 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:

4.124 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:

1.726 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:

74.68 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:

-$633.8 million (2006 est.)
Exports:

$11.51 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:

clothing, semi-finished goods and textiles, agricultural products, mechanical goods, phosphates and chemicals, hydrocarbons
Exports - partners:

France 28.9%, Italy 20.4%, Germany 8.6%, Spain 6.1%, Libya 4.9%, US 4% (2006)
Imports:

$14.04 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:

textiles, machinery and equipment, hydrocarbons, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:

France 25.1%, Italy 22%, Germany 9.5%, Spain 4.7% (2006)
Economic aid - recipient:

$376.5 million (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$6.777 billion (2006 est.)
Debt - external:

$18.55 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$21.22 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$57 million (2006 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:

$4.446 billion (2006)
Currency (code):

Tunisian dinar (TND)
Exchange rates:

Tunisian dinars per US dollar - 1.331 (2006), 1.2974 (2005), 1.2455 (2004), 1.2885 (2003), 1.4217 (2002)
Fiscal year:

calendar year
   Communications    Tunisia Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:

1.268 million (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular:

7.339 million (2006)
Telephone system:

general assessment: above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; Internet access available
domestic: trunk facilities consist of open-wire lines, coaxial cable, and microwave radio relay
international: country code - 216; 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya; participant in Medarabtel; 2 international gateway digital switches
Radio broadcast stations:

AM 7, FM 20, shortwave 2 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:

26 (plus 76 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:

.tn
Internet hosts:

1,163 (2007)
Internet users:

1.295 million (2006)
   Transportation    Tunisia Top of Page
Airports:

30 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:

total: 14
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 16
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 7 (2007)
Pipelines:

gas 2,945 km; oil 1,227 km; refined products 351 km (2006)
Railways:

total: 2,153 km
standard gauge: 471 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,674 km 1.000-m gauge (65 km electrified)
dual gauge: 8 km 1.435 m and 1.000-m gauges (three rails) (2006)
Roadways:

total: 19,232 km
paved: 12,655 km (includes 262 km of expressways)
unpaved: 6,577 km (2004)
Merchant marine:

total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 130,475 GRT/91,013 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 1, chemical tanker 2, passenger/cargo 4
foreign-owned: 1 (Libya 1) (2007)
Ports and terminals:

Bizerte, Gabes, La Goulette, Skhira
   Military    Tunisia Top of Page
Military branches:

Army, Navy, Republic of Tunisia Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jamahiriyah At'tunisia) (2007)
Military service age and obligation:

20 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months; 18 years of age for voluntary military service (2006)
Manpower available for military service:

males age 20-49: 2,441,741
females age 20-49: 2,406,362 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:

males age 20-49: 2,035,431
females age 20-49: 2,000,757 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:

males age 18-49: 108,817
females age 20-49: 103,087 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:

1.4% (2006)
   Transnational Issues    Tunisia Top of Page
Disputes - international:

none

This page was last updated on 15 November, 2007


Bottom Banner

K

Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Kuwait
Kyrgystan

L

Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg

M

Macau
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia
Midway Island
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique

N

Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands Antilles
Netherlands
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
North Korea
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway

O

Oman

P

Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palau
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico

Q

Qatar

R

Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda

S

St. Helena
St Kitts & Nevis
St Lucia
St Pierra & Miquelon
St Vincent & Grenadines
Samoa
San Marina
Sao Tome & Principle
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia & Montenegro
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia & Sandwich Islands
South Korea
Southern Islands
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria

T

Taiwan
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks & Caicos Islands
Tuvalu

U

Uganda
UK
Ukraine
UAE
Uruguay
USA
Uzbekistan

V

Vanuatu
Vatican
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands

W

Wake Island
Wallis & Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
The World

Y

Yemen

Z

Zimbabwe
Zambia